Wednesday, December 30, 2020

Anatomy of the Brain

Hi Friends!!!

In our previous anatomy and physiology session we have discussed about Lung Anatomy, Function and Disease, Anatomy of Kidney, Functions of Kidney, Anatomy of Liver, Functions of Liver.  Please check out for the link below.

Functions of Kidney

Lung Anatomy, Function and Disease

Anatomy of  Kidney

Anatomy of Liver

Functions of Liver

Being a healthcare professional, it is very important to have knowledge about human body.

Human body’s Central Nervous System consists of Brain and the Spinal Cord. In today’s topic we are going to discuss about anatomy of the brain.

Let's get into the topic.


The brain is made up of more than 100 billion nerves which communicate between trillions of connections called synapses. The brain is surrounded by the layer of tissue called meninges. The skull protects the brain from external injury.

The brain is divided into three main parts structurally, cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem.

Let’s discuss in detail about each of the above-mentioned parts.

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The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The cerebrum is composed of right and left hemispheres. The fissure that separates the two hemispheres is called as great longitudinal fissure. The corpus callosum connects the two sides of the brain at the bottom which is used to deliver messages from one side of the brain to the other side.

The cerebral hemispheres have several distinct fissures. Based on these fissures, it can divided into pair of lobes. Each hemisphere have separate lobes called frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe.

The functions of cerebrum include interpretation of touch, vision, hearing as well as speech, reasoning, learning, emotions, fine control of movements and learning.




The Brain is divided into several lobes which are as follows.


FRONTAL LOBE: The frontal lobes are located in the front part of the brain. The frontal lobes are largest lobes in the brain.


PARIETAL LOBE: The parietal lobes are located behind the frontal lobes.


TEMPORAL LOBE: The temporal lobes are located on both sides of the head as the same level of the ears.


OCCIPITAL LOBE: The occipital lobes are located on the backside of the brain.

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It is located at the back of the brain beneath occipital lobe. The cerebellum is separated from cerebrum by the tentorium. Similar to cerebrum, the cerebellum has right and left hemispheres. The both hemispheres are connected by middle region called vermis.


The Arbor Vitae is a central white stem within the interior tissue. The Arbor Vitae spreads branches and sub branches through the right and left hemispheres.


The cerebellum’s main function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain balance and posture. The cerebellum is responsible for rapid and repetitive actions.




The brainstem is present at the base of the brain. It extends from upper cervical spinal cord to diencephalon of cerebrum. The brainstem connects cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. The brainstem is further divided into medulla, pons and midbrain. The 12 Cranial Nerves originate from the brain stem.

The 12 Cranial nerves are as follows.

1. Olfactory

2. Optic

3. Oculomotor

4. Trochlear

5. Trigeminal

6. Abducens

7. Facial

8. Auditory

9. Glossopharyngeal

10. Vagus

11. Accessory

12. Hypoglossal


The medulla oblongata which extends as a spinal cord, connects to the pons at the upper side. Both medulla oblongata and pons are considered as the parts of hindbrain. The midbrain connects pons to the diencephalon and the forebrain.


The midbrain plays a important role in ocular motion. The pons is involved in eye coordination and facial movements, hearing and balance. The functions of medulla oblongata include breathing, maintaining body temperature, heart rate, sleep cycle, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, swallowing and digestion.



The following are the deep structures of the brain.


The hypothalamus is located at the floor of the third ventricle. Hypothalamus is a part of diencephalon which is also a part of forebrain which connects  to the midbrain and cerebrum. The hypothalamus is the master control of the autonomic system. The hypothalamus plays a important role in sensory functions like taste, vision and smell.


The basal ganglia is present at the center of the brain. The basal ganglia are cluster in structure which plays a important role in coordinating messages between multiple other brain areas.


The pituitary gland lies in a small pocket of a bone at the skull base called as sella turcia. The pituitary stalk connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is also know as the master gland which controls the other endocrine glands.


The pineal gland is located behind the third ventricle. The pineal gland secrets melatonin which helps to regulate body’s internal clock and cardiac rhythms.


The thalamus is a relay station for all the information that comes and goes to the cortex.


The limbic system is considered as emotional brain. The limbic system is located on the top of brain stem and under the cerebral cortex.



The cerebrospinal fluid is a clear watery substance which cushions and  surrounds the brain and the spinal cord to prevent them from injury. The cerebrospinal fluid is also found inside the brain. This CSF fluid constantly circulates around the channels of the brain, which is constantly absorbed and replenished. The choroid plexus is a specialized structure within each ventricle responsible for CSF production.


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Anatomy of the Brain.  We will discuss in detail about a topic related to biomedical engineering in our future blogs.

NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.

Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.

Generations of CT Scanners


x ray machine working principle

components of x ray tube

MRI scan 

MRI With Contrast

Brain MRI

Types of MRI scanners


12 Lead ECG Placement


Holter Monitor



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