Monday, November 9, 2020

Anatomy of Liver

 Hi Friends!!!

In our previous anatomy and physiology session we have discussed about Lung Anatomy, Function and Disease, Anatomy of Kidney, Functions of Kidney.  Please check out for the link below.

Functions of Kidney

Lung Anatomy, Function and Disease

Anatomy of  Kidney

Being a healthcare professional, it is very important to have knowledge about human body.

Today we are going to discuss about Anatomy of Liver.

Liver is one of the important organs in our human body. It is the second largest organ in our body. Therefore it is important for every healthcare professionals to know in detail about liver.

Let's get into the topic.



Liver is the second largest organ in human body after the skin and it is located on the right side of the abdomen below the lungs and inferior to the diaphragm and deep between 7th to 11th ribs.


Liver occupies three abdominal regions: Right hypochondriac, Epigastric, and left hypochondriac. Major part of the liver is protected by rib cage. And there is impression of ribcage on top of the liver. Liver is wedge in shape and weighs about 1.2 to 1.5 kg.


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Major blood supply to liver is by hepatic portal vein which contributes 75% of blood supply to liver. It supplies partially deoxygenated blood by carrying the nutrients absorbed from the small intestines and it is dominant in blood supply to liver parenchyma.


The hepatic artery which is derived from celiac trunk supplies non-parenchymal structures of liver with arterial blood. Venous drainage of the liver is done by hepatic veins, which drains the deoxygenated blood into inferior vena cava.




Position of the liver is supported by several peritoneal ligaments. These ligaments are as follows:


Falciform ligament


The falciform ligament is a sickle shaped ligament which attaches the anterior surface of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall. It forms a natural anatomical division between right and left lobes of the liver. The free edge of falciform ligament contains Remnant of umbilical vein.


Triangular ligament


Right triangular ligament is formed adjacent to the bare area and attaches the diaphragm with the right lobe of the liver.


Left triangular ligament is formed by the union of anterior and posterior layers of coronary ligament at the apex of the liver and attaches left lobe of the liver with the diaphragm.


Coronary ligament


Coronary ligament attaches superior surface of the liver to the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Coronary ligament also demarcates the bare area of the liver. The anterior and posterior folds unite to form triangular ligaments on the left and right lobes of the liver.


Lesser omentum


 It attaches liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and 1st part of duodenum. It consists of hepatoduodenal ligament and hepatogastric ligament.


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The hepatic recesses are anatomical spaces between liver and its surrounding structures. Recesses are area subjected to infections, which leads to formation of abscess.


Subphrenic space


The subphrenic space is located between diaphragm and the anterior and superior aspects of the liver. The subphrenic space separates diaphragmatic surface of the liver from the diaphragm. The subphrenic space is divided into right and left by falciform ligament.


Subhepatic space


The subhepatic space is a subdivision of supra colic compartment. It is located between the transverse colon and the inferior surface of the liver.


Morison’s pouch


The Morison pouch is a potential space between visceral surface and the right kidney. It is the deepest part of the peritoneal cavity when lying flat or supine. So, pathological abdominal fluid like blood or ascites is most likely to be collected in this region in bedridden patients.




The liver has four lobes. The right and left lobe, separated by the falciform ligament. The Caudate and quadrate lobe delimited by the fissures of the visceral surface.


Each lobe is made of thousands of hexagonally-shaped lobules. These lobules are very small. Each lobule is made up of numerous liver cells, called hepatocytes. Between each row are sinusoids. These small blood vessels diffuse oxygen and nutrients through their capillary walls into the liver cells.




The Liver has 8 segments


The Middle hepatic vein divides liver into right and left halves. The Right hepatic vein divides right lobe into anterior and posterior lobes. The Left hepatic vein divides left lobe into medial and lateral halves. The Portal vein runs transversely dividing liver into 8 segments.




The nerve innervation of the liver is by hepatic nervous plexus which runs along the hepatic artery and portal vein. It receives sympathetic fibres from the celiac plexus and parasympathetic fibres from the anterior and posterior vagal trunks.



The lymph that is produced by the liver is collected mainly by the hepatic nodes which are situated around the porta hepatis. From there the fluid is carried to the celiac nodes which are part of intestinal lymphatic trunks and merge directly into thoracic duct.

Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Anatomy of Liver.  We will discuss in detail about a topic related to biomedical engineering in our future blogs.

NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.

Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.

Generations of CT Scanners


x ray machine working principle

components of x ray tube

MRI scan 

MRI With Contrast

Brain MRI

Types of MRI scanners


12 Lead ECG Placement


Holter Monitor



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