Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Components of X ray Tube

Hi friends!!!

In our previous blog we have discussed about x ray machine working principle. Please check out for the link given below to have better understanding of today’s content.

X ray Machine Working Principle


In today’s blog, we are going to discuss about the components of x ray tube.


The x ray is a important radiography equipment. The invention of x ray machine has created a revolution in the field of diagnostic healthcare. The x ray machine produces the images of inside of our body in black and white. Therefore it is important for every healthcare professional to know in detail about x ray machine.


Let’s get into the topic with a small introduction about X ray.


WHAT IS X RAY?

X rays are almost similar to visible lights. But the only difference is that they have different wavelengths. We can see visible light of higher wavelength, but we cannot see the X ray beams with lower wavelength and high energy. The frequency of X rays is 1020 Hz and wavelength ranges from 10 Picometres to 10 Nanometres.


WHAT ARE THE

COMPONENTS OF X

RAY TUBE?


The x ray tube is a energy converter which converts electrical energy into X ray radiation and  heat. The following are the components of the x ray tube.


Image courtesy: Wikipedia.org
Licensed under: CC Share Alike 

1. Cathode.

2. Anode.

3. Expansion Bellows.

4. Tube Envelope.

5. Tube Housing.

6. Rotor.

7. Induction Slater.

8. Tube Window.

9. Aluminum Filter.

10. Collimator.


CATHODE

Cathode acts as a source of electrons. The electric current is used to heat the cathode filament which in turn accelerates the electrons from the cathode.


ANODE

There are two types of anode used in the x ray tube. One is Stationary anode and other is rotating anode. Rotating anode is used mostly. Anode has two main functions, one is it convert electric energy into X ray radiation and to dissipate the heat created in the process.

Disadvantages of using rotating anode:

Decreased output of X ray beams due to scattering of X ray beams and more absorption of X ray beams by anode target itself.


EXPANSION BELLOWS

Expansion bellows allows oil to expand without increasing pressure on the tube.


TUBE ENVELOPE

The primary function of tube envelope is to use vacuum in the tube. Tube Envelope is usually made up of glass. In some cases it is also made up of ceramic or metal based on the application. In a conventional X ray tube, anode only rotates. In case of dual energy CT’s entire envelope tube rotates, Rotating Envelop Tubes are used. And in addition to that anode is in direct contact with the liquid coolant which results in High heat conduction and increased performance.

Have you ever wondered why vacuum tube is used in X ray production instead of normal air filled tube. The following is the answer.

The presence of gases in the X ray tube would allow electric current to flow through the tube freely instead of flowing only in the electron beam. Thus, inferring in the X ray production and damages the electric circuit.


TUBE HOUSING

The x ray tube housing acts as a shield and absorbs the excess radiation apart from the radiation that pass through the window as a useful X ray beams. The space between the x ray tube housing and inside is filled with oil which creates a electrical insulation and transfers heat from inside to the housing surface.


INDUCTION SLATER

Slater lies at the neck of the tube outside the envelope which provide the magnetic field to provide power to affect the rotation of anode.


ROTOR

The magnetic field produced by induction slater induces the current in the rotor of induction motor which in turn provides power to rotate the anode.


TUBE WINDOW

The x ray tube window is usually made up of beryllium which allows X rays to pass through and has sufficient strength to hold the vacuum required for x ray tube to operate.


ALUMINUM FILTER

The X ray beams produced by x ray machine are used in medical field has wide range of frequencies. X ray beams of unwanted frequencies may cause side effects on the patients if exposed. In order to filter the unwanted frequencies of X ray beam, aluminum filter is used.


COLLIMATOR

Collimator is used to direct the X ray beam from x ray tube to a specific region of interest in a patient’s body. It is used to avoid exposure of radiation to the areas apart from the region of interest.


Image courtesy: Wikimedia commons
Licensed under: CC Share Alike 


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about the components of x ray tube. We will discuss in detail about a topic related to Biomedical Engineering  in our next blog.

NOTE: Dear friends!!! ...Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.


Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography

Generations of CT Scanners

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY|TECHNOLOGY|ARTIFACTS


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