Saturday, May 8, 2021

Oxygen Concentrator

 

Hi friends!!!


In our previous blogs we have discussed about Medical Device Product Life Cycle, Telemedicine, Infant Incubator. Please check out for the link below.


Medical Device Product Life Cycle


Telemedicine


Infant Incubator


Today we are going to discuss about Oxygen Concentrator.


In current situation of COVID, Oxygen Concentrator is a important life saving device. Being a healthcare professional, its important to know in detail about Oxygen Concentrator. 


Let's get into the topic. 


WHAT IS OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR?


The Oxygen Concentrator is a medical device used to deliver oxygen to patients suffering from breathing related problems. The Oxygen Concentrator is used when oxygen level in patients’ blood stream is lower than the normal level.


The oxygen level is usually measured using SpO2. The normal level of oxygen in body ranges from 95%-100%. The oxygen level of 94% or below can be considered as lower oxygen saturation level.


The Oxygen Concentrator has housing which consists of compressor, filters, tubing, nasal cannula and face mask. The portable Oxygen Concentrator has a battery attached.


Image courtesy: Wikimedia commons
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HOW DOES OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR

WORKS?


The Oxygen Concentrator gathers the surrounding atmospheric air and passes it onto the series of filters to remove dust particles and other contaminants. The Oxygen Concentrator then compresses it to the required density and delivers atmospheric oxygen as purified medical grade oxygen into a delivery system. From delivery system, oxygen is passed to the patients via special mask or nasal cannula attached to patients face. The delivery system can be pulsed delivery system or continuous delivery system.


The air we breathe contains 79% of nitrogen and 21% of oxygen. The Oxygen Concentrator has two cylinders which has an inbuilt sieve beds. One of these cylinders is used to remove nitrogen gas from atmospheric air and deliver purified medical grade oxygen. The other cylinder is used to expel the absorbed nitrogen into the atmosphere. The Oxygen Concentrator has a user interface where users can adjust the level of oxygen concentration and delivery settings.


WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR?


There are two types of oxygen concentrator, Portable oxygen concentrator and Stationary oxygen concentrator. The key difference between stationary and portable oxygen concentrator are oxygen output, size & weight, power source, price.


PORTABLE OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR


The portable oxygen concentrator has two types of delivery settings, pulsed and continuous flow delivery settings. The pulsed mode is used to deliver oxygen only when patients inhale. These types of pulsed mode portable oxygen concentrators are more compact in design and have more battery life. The portable oxygen concentrator can be used with multiple forms of power sources, AC and DC.


STATIONARY OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR


The stationary oxygen concentrator has continuous flow delivery system. The continuous flow mode delivers constant air flow continuously. This type of oxygen concentrator is required for patients in need of oxygen even during sleep. The stationary oxygen concentrator have higher oxygen output and lower cost.


ADVANTAGES OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR


The modern day Oxygen Concentrator has more advantage over traditional oxygen tanks because the traditional oxygen tanks may cause fire when there is a leak.


The traditional oxygen tanks are large in size and difficult to move. In case of modern-day Oxygen Concentrator, it is easy to move and are available in portable form to be used everywhere.


DISADVANTAGES OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR


The main disadvantage of oxygen concentrator is that it requires electrical power to function. However, this problem can be solved in portable oxygen concentrator as it have battery backup.


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Oxygen Concentrator. We will meet again with another valuable topic related to Biomedical Engineering, Medical Device, Healthcare.


NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.


Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.


Generations of CT Scanners


COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY|TECHNOLOGY|ARTIFACTS


x ray machine working principle


components of x ray tube


MRI scan 


MRI With Contrast


Brain MRI


Types of MRI scanners


ELECTROCARDIOGRAM


12 Lead ECG Placement


HOW TO READ AN ECG


Holter Monitor


DON’T FORGET TO FOLLOW THIS BLOG PAGE


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If you find this blog post knowledgeable, 

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Sunday, April 25, 2021

Medical Device Product Life Cycle


Hi friends!!!


In our previous blog we have discussed about Telemedicine. Please check out for the link below.


Telemedicine


Today we are going to discuss about Medical Device Product Life Cycle


Being a healthcare professional, its important to know in detail about Medical Device Product Life Cycle. 


Let's get into the topic. 


MEDICAL DEVICE

PRODUCT LIFE

CYCLE

 

The concept of Product Life Cycle (PLC) is common for products across different industries. The Life Cycle of Medical Device is a concept derived from broader concept of PLC.

 

The Medical Devices need to be handled differently in each stage of its product life cycle. In olden stages, there were series of regulations which focused only on certain important stages of product life cycle like Design and Development. But in recent times due to the development of standards like ISO 13485:2016 and EU MDR 2017/745 the emphasis is spread equally on all the stages of Medical Device Product Life Cycle.

 

Let’s take a detailed look into each stage of Medical Device Product Life Cycle.




 

PHASES OF

MEDICAL DEVICE

LIFE CYCLE

 

The Medical Device goes through six phases in its entire life span. The following are the six phases of Medical Device Life Cycle.

 

CONCEPT

 

In the Concept phase, a medical device exists in an idea form. It is every important to evaluate the idea. The idea is evaluated by conducting feasibility study and by analyzing the potential risks. The potential markets and target customer groups are identified. The intended use of the medical device is defined.

 

PLANNING

 

In planning phase, the user requirements were captured and converted into technical specification. Later on, prototypes will be developed based on the technical specifications. Several tests will be performed on initial prototypes. The user feedback will be obtained. The project plan and timeline will be defined. The roles and responsibilities of each personnel will be defined as per the project plan.

 

DESIGN


The Design & Development stage has to be carried out with following factors in mind. Manufacturing limitations, ease of component assembly, cost efficiency of processing, intended use, serviceability etc. In this stage, the design verification and design validation will be made. The Design & Development stage shall follow a risk-based approach using tools like FMEA. In this stage, the medical device is designed, tested, review and designed again for further improvement.

 

VALIDATION

 

During Validation phase, the process validation is conducted. In process validation, machine parameters are defined by conducting operational and performance qualification. The medical device is testing in a real time clinical setup like hospitals and clinics. It is called as clinical validation.  The medical device is labelled and initiation for regulatory submissions will be made.

 

LAUNCH

 

After obtaining all the regulatory approvals and certifications, the medical device is launched into the market. The medical device is distributed to healthcare providers, hospitals and clinics. All the sales and marketing activities will be initiated. Product demo’s and clinician training will be given.

 

POST MARKET

 

The Post Market stage is gaining more importance in current regulatory setup. Once the product is launched into the market, the post market surveillance activities begin. The medical device adverse events will be recorded and necessary actions will be initiated. The adverse events will also be reported to applicable regulatory authorities. Product improvement is made based on the feedback obtained during post market phase. Clinical follow-up visits will be carried.


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Medical Device Product Life Cycle. We will meet again with another valuable topic related to Biomedical Engineering, Medical Device, Healthcare.


NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.


Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.


Generations of CT Scanners


COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY|TECHNOLOGY|ARTIFACTS


x ray machine working principle


components of x ray tube


MRI scan 


MRI With Contrast


Brain MRI


Types of MRI scanners


ELECTROCARDIOGRAM


12 Lead ECG Placement


HOW TO READ AN ECG


Holter Monitor


DON’T FORGET TO FOLLOW THIS BLOG PAGE


DROP YOUR MAIL ID TO GET IMMEDIATE UPDATES


If you find this blog post knowledgeable, 

comment & share it with a friend! 


Friday, April 9, 2021

TELEMEDICINE

 Hi friends!!!


In our previous blog we have discussed about Infant Incubator. Please check out for the link given below.


Infant Incubator


Today we are going to discuss about Telemedicine.


Telemedicine is one of the emerging concepts in the field of healthcare.  Therefore it is important for every healthcare professional to know in detail about Telemedicine.


Let’s get into the topic. 

WHAT IS TELEMEDICINE?


The Telemedicine is an emerging technology by which healthcare professionals can evaluate, diagnose and treat patients at a distance without being in direct contact with them. The concept of telemedicine is very much useful in case of rural areas and difficult to reach areas where doctors may not be available all the time. Telemedicine uses a telecommunication technology to provide healthcare remotely. Telemedicine has become possible due to internet age which high quality video transmission possible.



Image courtesy: Wikimedia commons
Licensed under: CC Share Alike


WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF

TELEMEDICINE?


The following are the three important types of telemedicine.


INTERACTIVE MEDICINE


In interactive medicine, the patients and clinician interact in real time using video conference software while maintaining HIPAA compliance. The examples of interactive medicine include Phone calls, online video conference etc.


STORE AND FORWARD


It is also known as asynchronous telemedicine. In store and forward type, there will be a service provider (eg: Testing labs) who stores the patient information and forward it to the doctor present in different location. Eg: A doctor in a rural area can store patient data and can send it to a specialist doctor in city to gain deeper insights about patients illness.


REMOTE PATIENT MONITORING


In remote patient monitoring, patients are provided with some kind of wearable medical devices which monitors & collects patient data and transfers it to the doctor. Eg: Wearable watches or patches which monitor and send data about blood glucose and blood pressure to doctors in different locations.


WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF TELEMEDICINE?


The Telemedicine is an alternative for in house hospital visits. So, telemedicine has many benefits for both patients as well as clinicians.


BENEFITS TO PATIENTS


1. No time and money loss due to travelling.

2. No contact with other infectious patients.

3. Better privacy.

4. Easy access.


BENEFITS TO CLINICIANS


1. Increased revenue.

2. Lesser or no money spend on office space.

3. Chance to cover missed appointments and cancellations.   


HIPAA COMPLIANCE


All telemedicine software should be in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The HIPAA compliant is a guideline to protect patient safety. It prevents breach of any personal patient data. While there are some software’s meant for normal communication which is easy for doctors to interact with patients and provide guidance. Eg: Skype. However using such software for healthcare purpose may not provide compliance for HIPAA in protecting patient data.


FEATURES OF TELEMEDICINE SOFTWARE


Many countries now started to provide reimbursement for healthcare service offered via telemedicine software. But in order to receive reimbursement, the details of telemedicine visit shall be documented and submitted to approving authorities.


There are some telemedicine software’s which allow easy documentation of telemedicine visits. These documents can latter be imported and stored to Electronic Health Records.


In some telemedicine software’s, EHR is integrated to facilitate automatic storing and retrieval of details about telemedicine visits.


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TELEMEDICINE AND

TELEHEALTH


Telemedicine can be used to provide specific and focused remote clinical services. The services include all kinds of medical, diagnostics and treatments related to a specific illness. Telemedicine is a narrower field whereas Telehealth refers to a broader scope of remote health services beyond doctor-patient relationship. Telehealth provides remote non clinical services. The examples of Telehealth include healthcare education, remote health information services.


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Telemedicine. We will meet again with another valuable topic related to Biomedical Engineering, Medical Device, Healthcare.


NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.


Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.


Generations of CT Scanners


COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY|TECHNOLOGY|ARTIFACTS


x ray machine working principle


components of x ray tube


MRI scan 


MRI With Contrast


Brain MRI


Types of MRI scanners


ELECTROCARDIOGRAM


12 Lead ECG Placement


HOW TO READ AN ECG


Holter Monitor


DON’T FORGET TO FOLLOW THIS BLOG PAGE


DROP YOUR MAIL ID TO GET IMMEDIATE UPDATES


If you find this blog post knowledgeable, 

comment & share it with a friend! 


Monday, March 29, 2021

Infant Incubator

Hi friends!!!


Today we are going to discuss about Infant Incubator.


Infant Incubator is a important device used in NICU to save the lives of new born infant's. Therefore it is important for every healthcare professional to know in detail about Infant Incubator.


Let’s get into the topic. 

WHY INCUBATOR?


One of the major challenges in the survival of newborn infants is the thermal regulation. All mammals have the ability to regulate their body temperature. However, a newborn infant finds it difficult to regulate its temperature due to external environmental conditions. Body temperature decreases because of heat loss from conduction, convection and water evaporation.


The conduction depends upon the thermal conductivity of the substance in contact with the body. Since babies will be covered in mattress, the heat loss due to mattress will be less. In convection, heat loss will be due to air temperature and speed.


Air speed and absolute humidity of the air decides the evaporation loss. If a infant is nursed in a regular warm incubator with moderate humidity, heat loss will be less.


However, heat loss due to evaporation is high when a immature babies with a thin skin are treated in a normal environment.


WHAT IS INFANT INCUBATOR?


The infant incubator is a rigid box like structure in which infant can be kept in a set and controlled environment to warn the infant by circulating heated air over the skin. The infant incubator include a fan, AC powered heater, a container filled with water to add humidity, a control valve for oxygen and a hand accessible port which permits the infants to be handled for nursing care. 


The incubator also consists of temperature sensor which is attached to infant’s abdomen to trace the infants actual body temperature.


The incubator is widely used in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).



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WHAT IS THE MECHANISM OF INCUBATOR?


The incubator box is generally made up of acrylic or fibre glass. The incubator box is transparent and a heating mechanism is kept below the tray of the incubator. The heating mechanism produces heat, which is not directly used to heat the infant. The heat produced from the heating mechanism warms the air mixture, which is then circulated in a closed environment around the baby.


There will be a digital display attached in a incubator which shows the air temperature and the infants body temperature. There is also an alarm function to alert in case of sudden increase or drop in temperature. The temperature control function is available in automatic as well as manual mode.

 

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF INCUBATOR?


The following are some of the notable types of incubator.


OPEN INCUBATOR


The open incubator is a type of incubator in which a infant is kept in a flat surface with a radiant heating element is kept handing above or below the surface. The level of heating is automatically controlled depending upon the infant’s body temperature. The infant body temperature is obtained using the temperature sensor attached to the infant abdomen.


Since open incubators are open at the top, it is easier to have skin to skin handling of infants from the top. The open incubators are used in case of infant requiring temporary body temperature regulation. The open incubator have lesser control over humidity levels and germ control when compared to the closed incubator. 


CLOSED INCUBATOR


The closed incubator is a type of incubator in which infant is completely covered. The main difference when compared to open incubator is that the temperature is created by circulation of warm air around closed environment.


The closed incubator has better control over humidity and germ protection. The temperature and humidity can be controlled manually by using knobs attached at the outer surface of the incubator. The temperature and humidity can also be adjusted automatically based on the temperature sensor readings attached to the infant’s abdomen.


The closed incubator has two prevent heat and air loss. So, the closed incubator is also called as double walled incubator.


PORTABLE INCUBATOR


The portable incubator is small in size. The portable incubators are used in case of transportation that is shifting an infant from one location to other. The portable incubator also includes a mini ventilator, pulse oximeter, oxygen supply unit, cardio respiratory unit.


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Infant Incubator. We will meet again with another valuable topic related to Biomedical Engineering, Medical Device, Healthcare.


NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.


Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.


Generations of CT Scanners


COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY|TECHNOLOGY|ARTIFACTS


x ray machine working principle


components of x ray tube


MRI scan 


MRI With Contrast


Brain MRI


Types of MRI scanners


ELECTROCARDIOGRAM


12 Lead ECG Placement


HOW TO READ AN ECG


Holter Monitor


DON’T FORGET TO FOLLOW THIS BLOG PAGE


DROP YOUR MAIL ID TO GET IMMEDIATE UPDATES


If you find this blog post knowledgeable, 

comment & share it with a friend! 

Monday, March 8, 2021

Biomedical Engineering

 Hi Friends!!!


Today we are going to discuss about Biomedical Engineering.


Biomedical Engineering is a emerging field in healthcare. Being a healthcare professional, it is very important to have knowledge about Biomedical Engineering.


Let's get into the topic.


WHAT IS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING?


The Biomedical Engineering is a interdisciplinary bridge between medicine and engineering. Engineering a innovative field, hence biomedical engineering can be termed as a combination of engineering innovations in the field of healthcare. Biomedical Engineering mainly focuses on improving human healthcare at all levels.


The Biomedical Engineering is a combination of multiple disciplines like mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science engineering, chemical engineering, material science, artificial intelligence, machine learning, mathematics, data science. All these disciplines are integrated with respect to human aspects like human anatomy and physiology, human health, tissue engineering, genetic engineering, biomechanics, hospital technology, healthcare technology to foster innovations in healthcare.

NOTABLE BIOMEDICAL INNOVATIONS


There are large number of Biomedical Innovation out there. Few are the important developments include X-Ray machine, which plays a important role in the field of healthcare diagnostics. Apart from X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound are major innovations in diagnostic healthcare.


Pacemaker and Defibrillator is an important innovation in healthcare which saves many people with heart disabilities.


Other notable innovations include artificial hip and knee joints.


Now a days, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning concepts are widely combined with Healthcare Technologies to improve human health.


VARIOUS FIELD OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING


There are numerous numbers of fields in biomedical engineering which are as follows.


Biomedical Instrumentation.

Rehabilitation Engineering.

Medical Imaging.

Clinical Engineering.

Biomaterials.

Biomechanics.

Biomedical Signal Processing.

Medical Electronics.

Life sciences,

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in healthcare.

 

The Biomedical Engineer can carry out a research in any of the above-mentioned fields and make multiple innovations based on their level of understanding of the concepts.

 

EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF BIOMEDICAL

ENGINEER


To become a Biomedical Engineer people can either do their Bachelors in Biomedical Engineering or they can do Masters (M. Tech or MS) in Biomedical specialization after completing Bachelors in a different discipline.


After completing bachelors in biomedical engineering, students can opt for MBA Courses. There are few MBA courses suitable for Biomedical Engineers like MBA in Hospital Management and MBA in Healthcare Management. However Biomedical Engineers are also eligible for other core disciplines of MBA

 

WHAT ARE THE JOB SCOPES OF BIOMEDICAL

ENGINEERING?


Since Biomedical Engineering is a multidisciplinary field, a Biomedical Engineer can work in various Medical device companies, life sciences companies, software development companies, healthcare startups and also in other service based healthcare companies.


The Biomedical Engineer can also be a entrepreneur by creating their own startup which can fulfill a healthcare need in a particular segment of the market.


The Biomedical Engineer can also work in hospitals. The roles of Biomedical Engineer in hospital will be to assist the clinicians and doctors in handling medical equipment’s, addressing medical equipment breakdowns, maintenance activities, maintaining necessary documents related to medical equipment’s, purchasing of equipment’s, discarding of medical equipment scrap etc.


In Medical Device companies, a Biomedical Engineer will get an opportunity to work in following profiles.


Research and Development.

Quality Assurance

Quality Control.

Validation Engineer.

Clinical Engineer.

Manufacturing Engineer.

Regulatory affairs.

Maintenance Engineer

Application Specialist.

Sales and Service.


Now I hope you have acquired some knowledge about Biomedical Engineering. We will meet again with another valuable healthcare topic.


NOTE: Dear friends!!!... Please do comment a topic related to Biomedical, so that we can discuss it in future blogs.


Check out for this blog about Computed Tomography,  X ray, MRI scan, ECG.


Generations of CT Scanners


COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY|TECHNOLOGY|ARTIFACTS


x ray machine working principle


components of x ray tube


MRI scan 


MRI With Contrast


Brain MRI


Types of MRI scanners


ELECTROCARDIOGRAM


12 Lead ECG Placement


HOW TO READ AN ECG


Holter Monitor


DON’T FORGET TO FOLLOW THIS BLOG PAGE


DROP YOUR MAIL ID TO GET IMMEDIATE UPDATES


If you find this blog post knowledgeable, 

comment & share it with a friend!